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Timuquanan Family

 Native American Nations | Linguistic Families                    

  • Timuquana, Smith in Hist. Magazine, II, 1, 1858 (a notice of the language with vocabulary; distinctness of the language affirmed). Brinton. Floridian Peninsula, 134, 1859 (spelled also Timuaca, Timagoa, Timuqua).
  • Timucua, Gatschet in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., XVI, April 6, 1877 (from Cape Cañaveral to mouth of St. John’s River). Gatschet, Creek Mig. Legend I, 11-13, 1884. Gatschet in Science, 413, April 29, 1887.
  • Atimuca, Gatschet in Science, ibid, (proper name).

Derivation: From ati-muca, “ruler,” “master;” literally, “servants attend upon him.”

In the Historical Magazine as above cited appears a notice of the Timuquana language by Buckingham Smith, in which is affirmed its distinctness upon the evidence of language. A short vocabulary is appended, which was collated from the “Confessionario” by Padre Pareja, 1613. Brinton and Gatschet have studied the Timuquana language and have agreed as to the distinctness of the family from any other of the United States. Both the latter authorities are inclined to take the view that it has affinities with the Carib family to the southward, and it seems by no means improbable that ultimately the Timuquana language will be considered an offshoot of the Carib linguistic stock. At the present time, however, such a conclusion would not be justified by the evidence gathered and published.

Geographic Distribution
It is impossible to assign definite limits to the area occupied by the tribes of this family. From documentary testimony of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the limits of the family domain appear to have been about as follows: In general terms the present northern limits of the State of Florida may be taken as the northern frontier, although upon the Atlantic side Timuquanan territory may have extended into Georgia. Upon the northwest the boundary line was formed in De Soto’s time by the Ocilla River. Lake Okeechobee on the south, or as it was then called Lake Sarrape or Mayaimi, may be taken as the boundary between the Timuquanan tribes proper and the Calusa province upon the Gulf coast and the Tegesta province upon the Atlantic side. Nothing whatever of the languages 124 spoken in these two latter provinces is available for comparison. A number of the local names of these provinces given by Fontanedo (1559) have terminations similar to many of the Timuquanan local names. This slender evidence is all that we have from which to infer the Timuquanan relationship of the southern end of the peninsula.

Principal Tribes
The following settlements appear upon the oldest map of the regions we possess, that of De Bry (Narratio; Frankf. a.M. 15, 1590):

(A) Shores of St. John’s River, from mouth to sources:

Patica.
Saturiwa.
Atore.
Homolua or Molua.
Alimacani.
Casti.
Malica.
Melona.
Timoga or Timucua.
Enecaqua.
Choya.
Edelano (island).
Astina.
Utina.
Patchica.
Chilili.
Calanay.
Onochaquara.
Mayarca.
Mathiaca.
Maiera.
Mocoso.
Cadica.
Eloquale.
Aquonena.

(B) On a (fictitious) western tributary of St. John’s River, from mouth to source:

Hicaranaou.
Appalou.
Oustaca.
Onathcaqua.
Potanou.
Ehiamana.
Anouala.

(C) East Floridian coast, from south to north:

Mocossou.
Oathcaqua.
Sorrochos.
Hanocoroucouay.
Marracou.

(D) On coast north of St. John’s River:
Hiouacara.

(E) The following are gathered from all other authorities, mostly from the accounts of De Soto’s expedition:

Acquera.
Aguile.
Basisa or Vacissa (1688).
Cholupaha.
Hapaluya.
Hirrihiqua.
Itafi (perhaps a province).
Itara Machaua (1688).
Napetuca.
Osile (Oxille).
San Juan de Guacara (1688).
San Mateo (1688).
Santa Lucia de Acuera (SE. coast).
Tacatacuru.
Tocaste.
Tolemato.
Topoqui.
Tucururu (SE. coast) Ucita.
Urriparacuxi.
Yupaha (perhaps a province).

Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891

Linguistic Families

 

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