- Salish, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 134, 306,
1836 (or Flat Heads only). Latham in Proc. Philolog. Soc. Lond.,
II, 31-50, 1846 (of Duponceau. Said to be the Okanagan of
- Salish, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
460, 474, 1878 (includes Flatheads, Kalispelms, Skitsuish,
Colvilles, Quarlpi, Spokanes, Pisquouse, Soaiatlpi).
- Salish, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 565, 618, 1882.
- Selish, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc. II, pt. 1, 77, 1848
(vocab. of Nsietshaws). Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 63,
78, 1884 (vocabularies of Lillooet and Kullespelm).
- Jelish, Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 403, 1853
(obvious misprint for Selish; follows Hale as to tribes).
- Selish, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 169, 1877 (gives habitat
and tribes of family). Gatschet in Beach, Ind. Misc., 444, 1877.
- Selish, Dall, after Gibbs, in Cont. N.A. Eth., 1, 241, 1877
(includes Yakama, which is Shahaptian).
- Tsihaili-Selish, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 205, 535, 569,
1846 (includes Shushwaps. Selish or Flatheads, Skitsuish,
Piskwaus, Skwale, Tsihailish, Kawelitsk, Nsietshawus). Gallatin
in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, c, 10, 1848 (after Hale).
Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852. Buschmann, Spuren
der aztek. Sprache, 658-661, 1859. Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 399,
1862 (contains Shushwap or Atna Proper, Kuttelspelm or Pend
d’Oreilles, Selish, Spokan, Okanagan, Skitsuish, Piskwaus,
Nusdalum, Kawitchen, Cathlascou, Skwali, Chechili, Kwaintl,
Kwenaiwtl, Nsietshawus, Billechula).
- Atnahs, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 134, 135,
306, 1836 (on Fraser River). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V,
427, 1847 (on Fraser River).
- Atna, Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 71, 1856 (Tsihaili-Selish
of Hale and Gallatin).
- Nootka-Columbian, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond.,
XI, 224, 1841 (includes, among others, Billechoola, Kawitchen,
Noosdalum, Squallyamish of present family).
- Insular, Scouler, ibid., (same as Nootka-Columbian family).
- Shahaptan, Scouler, ibid., 225 (includes Okanagan of this
- Southern, Scouler, ibid., 224 (same as Nootka-Columbian
- Billechoola, Latham in Jour. Eth. Soc. Lond., I, 154, 1848
(assigns Friendly Village of McKenzie here). Latham, Opuscula,
250, 1860 (gives Tolmie’s vocabulary).
- Billechula, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 300, 1850 (mouth of
Salmon River). Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 72, 1856
(same). Latham, Opuscula, 339, 1860.
- Bellacoola, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 564, 607, 1882 (Bellacoolas
only; specimen vocabulary).
- Bilhoola, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 62, 1884 (vocab.
- Bilchula, Boas in Petermann’s Mitteilungen, 130, 1887
(mentions Satsq, Nute?´l, Nuchalkm?, Taleóm?).
- Naass, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc. II, pt. 1, c, 77,
1848 (cited as including Billechola).
- Tsihaili, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 310, 1850 (chiefly lower
part of Fraser River and between that and the Columbia; includes
Shuswap, Salish, Skitsuish, Piskwaus, Kawitchen, Skwali,
Checheeli, Kowelits, Noosdalum, Nsietshawus).
- Wakash, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 301, 1850 (cited as
- Shushwaps, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
460, 474, 1878 (quoted as including Shewhapmuch and Okanagans).
- Hydahs, Keane, ibid., 473 (includes Bellacoolas of present
- Nootkahs, Keane, ibid., 473 (includes Komux, Kowitchans,
Klallums, Kwantlums, Teets of present family).
- Nootka, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 564, 1882 (contains the
following Salishan tribes: Cowichin, Soke, Comux, Noosdalum,
Wickinninish, Songhie, Sanetch, Kwantlum, Teet, Nanaimo,
Newchemass, Shimiahmoo, Nooksak, Samish, Skagit, Snohomish,
- Puget Sound Group, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and
So. Am.), 474, 1878 (comprises Nooksahs, Lummi, Samish, Skagits,
Nisqually, Neewamish, Sahmamish, Snohomish, Skeewamish,
Squanamish, Klallums, Classets, Chehalis, Cowlitz, Pistchin,
Chinakum; all but the last being Salishan).
- Flatheads, Keane, ibid., 474, 1878 (same as his Salish
- Kawitshin, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 39, 1884 (vocabs.
of Songis and Kwantlin Sept and Kowmook or Tlathool).
- Qauitschin, Boas in Petermann’s Mitteilungen, 131, 1887.
- Niskwalli, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 50, 121, 1884
(or Skwalliamish vocabulary of Sinahomish).
The extent of the Salish or Flathead family was unknown to
Gallatin, as indeed appears to have been the exact locality of the
tribe of which he gives an anonymous vocabulary from the Duponceau
collection. The tribe is stated to have resided upon one of the
branches of the Columbia River, “which must be either the most
southern branch of Clarke’s River or the most northern branch of
Lewis’s River.” The former supposition was correct. As employed by
Gallatin the family embraced only a single tribe, the Flathead tribe
proper. The Atnah, a Salishan tribe, were considered by Gallatin to
be distinct, and the name would be eligible as the family name;
preference, however, is given to Salish. The few words from the
Friendly Village near the sources of the Salmon River given by
Gallatin in Archæologia Americana, II, 1836, pp. 15, 306, belong
under this family.
Since Gallatin’s time, through the labors of Riggs, Hale, Tolmie,
Dawson, Boas, and others, our knowledge of the territorial limits of
this linguistic family has been greatly extended. The most southern
outpost of the family, the Tillamook and Nestucca, were established
on the coast of Oregon, about 50 miles to the south of the Columbia,
where they were quite separated from their kindred to the north by
the Chinookan tribes. Beginning on the north side of Shoalwater Bay,
Salishan tribes held the entire northwestern part of Washington,
including the whole of the Puget Sound region, except only the Macaw
territory about Cape Flattery, and two insignificant spots, one near
Port Townsend, the other on the Pacific coast to the south of Cape
Flattery, which were occupied by Chimakuan tribes. Eastern Vancouver
Island to about midway of its length was also held by Salishan
tribes, while the great bulk of their territory lay on the mainland
opposite and included much of the upper Columbia. On the south they
were hemmed in mainly by the Shahaptian tribes. Upon the east
Salishan tribes dwelt to a little beyond the Arrow Lakes and their
feeder, one of the extreme north forks of the Columbia. Upon the
southeast Salishan tribes extended into Montana, including the upper
drainage of the Columbia. They were met here in 1804 by Lewis and
Clarke. On the northeast Salish territory extended to about the
fifty-third parallel. In the northwest it did not reach the Chilcat
Within the territory thus indicated there is considerable diversity
of customs and a greater diversity of language. The language is
split into a great number of dialects, many of which are doubtless
The relationship of this family to the Wakashan is a very
interesting problem. Evidences of radical affinity have been
discovered by Boas and Gatschet, and the careful study of their
nature and extent now being prosecuted by the former may result in
the union of the two, though until recently they have been
considered quite distinct.
Population.—The total Salish
population of British Columbia is 12,325, inclusive of the
Bellacoola, who number, with the Hailtzuk, 2,500, and those in the
list of unclassified, who number 8,522, distributed as follows:
|Under the Fraser River
||Williams Lake Agency,
Most of the Salish in the United States are on reservations. They
number about 5,500, including a dozen small tribes upon the Yakama
Reservation, which have been consolidated with the Clickatat (Shahaptian)
The Salish of the United States are distributed as follows
(Indian Affairs Report, 1889, and U.S. Census Bulletin, 1890):
|Colville Agency, Washington
||Coeur d’ Alene,
||San Pueblo (Sans Puell),
|Puyallup Agency, Washington
||Oyhut, Hoquiam, Montesano, and Satsup,
|Grande Ronde Agency,
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891