- Koluschen, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
14, 1836 (islands and adjacent coast from 60° to 55° N.L.).
- Koulischen, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc.,
II, 306, 1836. Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, c,
77, 1848, (Koulischen and Sitka languages). Gallatin in
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853 (Sitka, bet. 52° and
- Kolooch, Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., II, 31-50,
1846 (tends to merge Kolooch into Esquimaux). Latham in Jour.
Eth. Soc. Lond., 1, 163, 1848 (compared with Eskimo language.).
Latham, Opuscula, 259, 276, 1860.
- Koluschians, Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 433, 1847
(follows Gallatin). Scouler (1846) in Jour. Eth. Soc. Lond., I,
- Kolúch, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 294, 1850 (more likely forms
a subdivision of Eskimo than a separate class; includes Kenay of
Cook’s Inlet, Atna of Copper River, Koltshani, Ugalents, Sitkans,
Tungaas, Inkhuluklait, Magimut, Inkalit; Digothi and Nehanni are
classed as “doubtful Kolúches”).
- Koloschen, Berghaus (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848.
Ibid., 1852. Buschmann, Spuren der aztek. Sprache, 680, 1859.
Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887.
- Kolush, Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 401, 1862 (mere mention of
family with short vocabulary).
- Kaloshians, Dall in Proc. Am. Ass., 375, 1885 (gives tribes
- Northern, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond., XI, 218,
1841 (includes Koloshes and Tun Ghasse). Haidah, Scouler, ibid,
219, 1841 (same as his Northern).
- Klen-ee-kate, Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, V, 489, 1855.
- Klen-e-kate, Kane, Wanderings of an Artist, app., 1859 (a
census of N.W. coast tribes classified by language).
- Thlinkithen, Holmberg in Finland Soc., 284, 1856 (fide
Buschmann, 676, 1859).
- Thl´nkets, Dall in Proc. Am. Ass., 268, 269, 1869 (divided
into Sitka-kwan, Stahkin-kwan, “Yakutats”).
- T´linkets, Dall in Cont. N.A. Eth., I, 36, 1877 (divided
into Yak´utats, Chilkaht´kwan, Sitka-kwan, Stakhin´-kwan,
- Thlinkeet, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent, and So. Am.),
460, 462, 1878 (from Mount St. Elias to Nass River; includes
Ugalenzes, Yakutats, Chilkats, Hoodnids, Hoodsinoos, Takoos,
Auks, Kakas, Stikines, Eeliknûs, Tungass, Sitkas). Bancroft,
Nat. Races, III, 562, 579, 1882.
- Thlinkit, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 14, 1884 (vocab.
of Skutkwan Sept; also map showing distribution of family).
Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887.
- Tlinkit, Dall in Proc. Am. Ass., 375, 1885 (enumerates
tribes and gives population).
Derivation: From the Aleut word kolosh, or more properly, kaluga,
meaning “dish,” the allusion being to the dish-shaped lip ornaments.
This family was based by Gallatin upon the Koluschen tribe (the
Tshinkitani of Marchand), “who inhabit the islands and the adjacent
coast from the sixtieth to the fifty-fifth degree of north
In the Koluschan family, Gallatin observes that the remote analogies
to the Mexican tongue to be found in several of the northern tribes,
as the Kinai, are more marked than in any other.
The boundaries of this family as given by Gallatin are substantially
in accordance with our present knowledge of the subject. The
southern boundary is somewhat indeterminate owing to the fact,
ascertained by the census agents in 1880, that the Haida tribes
extend somewhat farther north than was formerly supposed and occupy
the southeast half of Prince of Wales Island. About latitude 56°, or
the mouth of Portland Canal, indicates the southern limit of the
family, and 60°, or near the mouth of Atna River, the northern
limit. Until recently they have been supposed to be exclusively an
insular and coast people, but Mr. Dawson has made the interesting
discovery63 that the
Tagish, a tribe living inland on the headwaters of the Lewis River,
who have hitherto been supposed to be of Athapascan extraction,
belong to the Koluschan family. This tribe, therefore, has crossed
the coast range of mountains, which for the most part limits the
extension of this people inland and confines them to a narrow coast
strip, and have gained a permanent foothold in the interior, where
they share the habits of the neighboring Athapascan tribes.
Population.—The following figures
are from the census of 1880.64 The total population of the tribes of
this family, exclusive of the Tagish, is 6,437, distributed as
|Hanega (including Kouyon and Klanak)
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891